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Tuesday, March 16, 2010

Purulia

Purulia district (Bengali: পুরুলিয়া জেলা) is one of the nineteen districts of West Bengal state in eastern India. The town of Purulia is the administrative headquarters of the district.
Contents [hide]
1 History
2 Geography
2.1 Climate
2.2 Rivers and lakes
2.3 Geology
3 Demography
4 Subdivisions
4.1 Purulia Sadar East subdivision
4.2 Purulia Sadar West subdivision
4.3 Raghunathpur subdivision
5 Assembly constituencies
5.1 Impact of delimitation of constituencies
6 Tourism
7 References
8 External links
[edit]History

The territory of present Purulia district was a part of Banga, one of the 16 Mahajanapadas according to Jaina Bhagavati Sutra (c. 5th century CE) and was also a part of the country known as Vajra-bhumi in ancient period. During medieval period, this territory was regarded as part of Jharkhand region. Little is known about Purulia before the British East India Company acquired this territory by obtaining the grant of Diwani of the subahs of Bengal, Bihar, Orissa in 1765.
By Regulation XVIIII of 1805, a Jungle Mahals district composed of 23 parganas and mahals including the present Purulia (known as 'Purulia' in those days) was formed. By Regulation XIII of 1833 the Jungle Mahals district was broken up and a new district called Manbhum was constituted with headquarters at Manbazar. The district was very large in size and included parts of Bankura and Bardhaman districts of present West Bengal state and Dhanbad, Dhalbhum and Seraikela-Kharswan districts of present Jharkhand states. In 1838 the district headquarters was transferred from Manbazar to Purulia. Since the formation of the district it was withdrawn from regular administration and placed under an officer called Principal Assistant to the agent to the Governor-General for South-Western Frontier. The title of the officer Principal Agent was later changed to Deputy Commissioner by Act XX of 1854. Finally in 1956 Manbhum district was partitioned between Bihar and West Bengal under the States Reorganization Act and the Bihar and West Bengal (Transfer of Territories) Act 1956 and the present Purulia district was born on November 1, 1956.
[edit]Geography

Purulia lies between 22.60 degrees and 23.50 degrees north latitudes and 85.75 degrees and 86.65 degrees east longitudes. The geographical area of the district is 6259 km². This district is bordered on the east by Bankura, Paschim Medinipur districts, on the north by Bardhaman district of West Bengal state and Dhanbad district of Jharkhand state, on the west by Bokaro and Ranchi districts of Jharkhand state and on the south by West Singhbhum and East Singhbhum districts of Jharkhand state.
Purulia is the westernmost district of West Bengal with an all-India significance because of its tropical location, its shape as well as function like a funnel. It funnels not only the tropical monsoon current from the Bay to the subtropical parts of north-west India, but also acts as a gateway between the developed industrial belts of West Bengal and the hinterlands in Orissa, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.
[edit]Climate
Rainfall defines the climate of the district. South west monsoon is the principal source of rainfall in the district. Average annual rainfall varies between 1100 and 1500 mm. The relative humidity is high in monsoon season, being 75% to 85%. But in hot summer it comes down to 25% to 35%. Temperature varies over a wide range from 7 degrees Celsius in winter to 46.8 degrees Celsius in the summer. Record highest temperature is 52 degrees.
[edit]Rivers and lakes
The main rivers passing through or bordering the district are Kangsabati, Kumari, Dwarakeswar, Subarnarekha and Damodar.
[edit]Geology
Due to undulated topography nearly 50% of the rainfall flows away as runoff. The district is covered by mostly residual soil formed by weathering of bed rocks.
[edit]Demography

The district has a population of 2,538,233 (as per the 2001 census) out of which 19.35% is Scheduled Caste and 19.22% is Scheduled Tribes. The literacy rates of male and female are 74.18% and 37.15% of the total population.
According to the 2001 census, 83.42% of the population are Hindus, while 7.12% are Muslims.
[edit]Subdivisions

The district comprises three subdivisions: Purulia Sadar East, Purulia Sadar West and Raghunathpur. Puruliya Sadar East consists of Purulia municipality and seven community development blocks: Manbazar–I, Manbazar–II, Bundwan, Purulia–I, Purulia–II, Hura and Puncha. Puruliya Sadar West consists of Jhalda municipality and seven community development blocks: Jhalda–I, Jhalda–II, Jaipur, Arsha, Bagmundi, Balarampur and Barabazar. Raghunathpur subdivision consists of Raghunathpur municipality and six community development blocks: Para, Raghunathpur–I, Raghunathpur–II, Neturia, Santuri and Kashipur.[1] Purulia town is the district headquarters. There are 20 police stations, 20 development blocks, 3 municipalities, 170 gram panchayats,[2] and 2459 inhabited villages in this district.[3]
Each subdivision contains one municipality each along with community development blocks which in turn is divided into rural areas and census towns.[4] In total there are 11 urban units: 3 municipalities and 9 census towns.
[edit]Purulia Sadar East subdivision
Purulia: municipality
Manbazar - I community development block consists of rural areas only with 10 gram panchayats.
Manbazar - II community development block consists of rural areas only with 7 gram panchayats.
Bundwan community development block consists of rural areas only with 8 gram panchayats.
Purulia–I community development block consists of rural areas only with 8 gram panchayats.
Purulia–II community development block consists of rural areas only with 9 gram panchayats.
Hura community development block consists of rural areas only with 10 gram panchayats.
Puncha community development block consists of rural areas only with 10 gram panchayats.
[edit]Purulia Sadar West subdivision
Jhalda: municipality
Jhalda–I community development block consists of rural areas only with 10 gram panchayats.
Jhalda–II community development block consists of rural areas only with 9 gram panchayats.
Jaipur community development block consists of rural areas only with 7 gram panchayats.
Arsha community development block consists of rural areas only with 8 gram panchayats.
Bagmundi community development block consists of rural areas only with 8 gram panchayats.
Balarampur community development block consists of rural areas with 7 gram panchayats and one census town: Balarampur.
Barabazar community development block consists of rural areas with 10 gram panchayats and one census town: Barabazar.
[edit]Raghunathpur subdivision
Raghunathpur: municipality
Para community development block consists of rural areas with 10 gram panchayats and two census towns: Santaldih and Chapari.
Raghunathpur–I community development block consists of rural areas with 7 gram panchayats and one census town: Arra.
Raghunathpur–II community development block consists of rural areas with 6 gram panchayats and one census town: Nabagram.
Neturia community development block consists of rural areas with 7 gram panchayats and two census towns: Hijuli and Par Beliya.
Santuri community development block consists of rural areas only with 6 gram panchayats.
Kashipur community development block consists of rural areas with 13 gram panchayats and one census town: Adra.
[edit]Assembly constituencies

The district is divided into 11 assembly constituencies:[5]
Banduan (ST) (assembly constituency no. 233)
Manbazar (assembly constituency no. 234),
Balarampur (ST) (assembly constituency no. 235),
Arsa (assembly constituency no. 236),
Jhalda (assembly constituency no. 237),
Jaipur (assembly constituency no. 238),
Purulia (assembly constituency no. 239),
Para (SC) (assembly constituency no. 240),
Raghunathpur (SC) (assembly constituency no. 241),
Kashipur (ST) (assembly constituency no. 242) and
Hura (assembly constituency no. 243).
Banduan, Balrampur and Kashipur constituencies are reserved for Scheduled Tribes (ST) candidates. Para constituency is reserved for Scheduled Castes (SC) candidates. Banduan, Manbazar, Balarampur, Arsa, Jhalda, Jaipur and Purulia constituencies form the Purulia (Lok Sabha constituency). Para, Raghunathpur, Kashipur and Hura are assembly segments of Bankura (Lok Sabha constituency), which also contains three assembly segments from Bankura district.
[edit]Impact of delimitation of constituencies
As per order of the Delimitation Commission in respect of the delimitation of constituencies in the West Bengal, the district will be divided into 9 assembly constituencies:[6]
Banduan (ST) (assembly constituency no. 238)
Balarampur (assembly constituency no. 239),
Baghmundi (assembly constituency no. 240),
Jaipur (assembly constituency no. 241),
Purulia (assembly constituency no. 242),
Manbazar (ST) (assembly constituency no. 243),
Kashipur (assembly constituency no. 244),
Para (SC) (assembly constituency no. 245) and
Raghunathpur (SC) (assembly constituency no. 246).
Banduan and Manbazar constituencies will be reserved for Scheduled Tribes (ST) candidates. Para and Raghunathpur constituencies will be reserved for Scheduled Castes (SC) candidates. Banduan will be an assembly segment of Jhargram (Lok Sabha constituency), which will also contain six assembly segments from Paschim Medinipur district. Balarampur, Baghmundi, Jaipur, Purulia, Manbazar, Kashipur and Para constituencies will form the Purulia (Lok Sabha constituency). Raghunathpur assembly segment will be part of Bankura (Lok Sabha constituency), which will also contains six assembly segments from Bankura district.
[edit]Tourism

Thousands of tourists come to visit Purulia every year to witness the charm of the natural forests of Ayodhya, Matha and Kuilapal, falls and tribal habitations of Ajodhya Hills and Bagmundih, dams like Panchet, Murguma Dam (http://wikimapia.org/9193143/bn/MURGUMA-DAM) and Futiari, heritage building like Panchakot Raj Place, trekking range of Matha proud with Pakhi Pahar, and Joychandi Pahar, picnic spots like Duarsini, Doladanga, Jamuna, traditional folk dance and culture like Chhou Dance and Jhumur Song and so on. Purulia district is well connected by road and rail with the major cities and towns of the state as well as of the country.
[edit]References

^ "List of Districts/C.D.Blocks/ Police Stations with Code No., Number of G.Ps and Number of Mouzas". West Bengal. Directorate of census operations. Retrieved 2008-10-14.
^ "Directory of District, Sub division, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal, March 2008". West Bengal. National Informatics Centre, India. 2008-03-19. Retrieved 2008-11-12.
^ "Administrative Units". Purulia district. National Informatics Centre. Retrieved 2008-10-14.
^ "Population, Decadal Growth Rate, Density and General Sex Ratio by Residence and Sex, West Bengal/ District/ Sub District, 1991 and 2001". West Bengal. Directorate of census operations. Retrieved 2008-10-14.
^ "General election to the Legislative Assembly, 2001 – List of Parliamentary and Assembly Constituencies". West Bengal. Election Commission of India. Retrieved 2008-11-16.
^ "Press Note, Delimitation Commission". Assembly Constituencies in West Bengal. Delimitation Commission. Retrieved 2008-11-16.

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